Iminikelo eBhayibhelini nanamuhla

Kulo iBhayibheli sifunda ngeminikelo kusukela ekhasini lokuqala kuze kufike ekhasini lokugcina. Iminikelo iyizilwane noma ukudla okuthile abakunikela abantu ukumdumisa uNkulunkulu noma into abanikelayo ngayo ukuze bathole okuthile kuyena.

Akusiwona nje amaIsrayeli, abantu bakaNkulunkulu eBhayibhelini, abenza iminikelo. Ezinye izizwe ezabakhonza abanye onkulunkulu nazo zanikela. Ngisho nanamhlanje abantu basanikela. Izilwane abazihlabela amadlozi ngokwamasiko kanye nabahlabela onkulunkulu noma abantu abafuna kubo usizo, kungathiwa kuyiminikelo.

AmaKristu-ke afanele ukuthini ngeminikelo? Sisafanele yini ukunikela ngendlela esifunda ngayo kwiThestamente eliDala na? Thina maKristu singaqhubela phambili noma siboqhuba ukuhlabela ngezilwane ngokusho kwamasiko?

Ukuze sibe nokuqonda ngeminikelo nokuba nolwazi ukuthi sifanele ukwenza kanjani, sifanele ukuqonda kahle ngeminikelo eBhayibhelini nalokho okusilungele namuhla.

1.Iminikelo eBhayibhelini

Ngesikhathi sokuqala kweBhayibheli iminikelo yenziwa ezindaweni ezihlukeneyo lapha abantu bethanda ukumdumisa uNkulunkulu bembonga. (Genesise 4:3-4). Ngaleyonkati noma ubani wayevunyelwe ukwenza umhlatshelo, kepha kwakudamana ukuba yisihloko somndeni owenze umhlatshelo. (1 Samuweli 1:3). Imihlatshelo kaningi yenziwa elathini, okuyinqwaba yamatshe lapho kwabaswa khona umlilo ukushisa umhlatshelo.

Ngesikhathi sokuba isizwe kukaIsrayeli futhi noNkulunkulu wabanikeza umthetho wakhe, wathi bafanele ukwenza imihlatshelo endaweni yokukhuleka (okwakunjengendlu yesonto namuhla). Kuqala kwakuyithende lokukhonzela kuyo (ithabernakhele) kamuva, sebeyisizwe eKhanani, bayenza imihlatshelo ethempelini.

Kusukela kuleso sikhathi, kwahlukaniswa abantu abathile, abapristi, abamiswe nguNkulunkulu. Bona bamiselwe ukubahlabela abantu. Noyise kaJohane uMbhaphathisi wayengumpristi onjalo (Luka 1:8-10).  KuLevitikusi 8-10 sifunda ngayo imisebenzi ehlukene yabapristi. Babefanele ukuba ngcwele benze imihlatshelo ngayo indlela nqo uNkulunkulu abatshela ngayo.  ULevitikusi 16 ulanda ngomnikelo ohlukile neminye owenziwa kanye ngomnyaka ngoSuku oluKhulu lokuBuyisana.  Ngalolusuku uMpristi oMkhulu wayefanele ukungena negazi lomhlatshelo endaweni engcwele-ngcwele kulo ithempeli. Wakwenza lokho ukucelela isizwe kuNkulunkulu intethelo. Leligazi lalimela yonke imihlatshelo eyenziwe kulowomnyaka.

NgokweThestamente eliSha kwavela inguquko enkulu. Ukufa kukaJesu esiphambanweni kuthiwa kaningi: umhlatshelo  (Efese 5:2; Heberu 7:27; 9:26; 10:5-10). IBayibheli lithi imihlatshelo yeThestamente eliDala iyi-“thunzi” yomhlatshelo weqiniso kaJesu Kristu (Kolose 2:16-17; Heberu 9:23; 10:1-4). Lemihlatshelo yayikhomba umunwe kukho okweqiniso okwakusazokuza.

Ngokuchaza imihlatshelo neminikelo yeThestamente eliDala ngenzansi sizobona ukuthi yona ikhomba kanjani kuwo umhlatshelo kaJesu. Kepha lemihlatshelo kwiThestamente eliDala iyasiqondisa ngokujula ngalokho uJesu asenzela khona ngokufa esiphambanweni.

2. Izinhlobo-nhlobo zemihlatshelo

Funda uLevitikusi 7:37-38. Encwadini uLevitikusi sifunda okuningi ngemihlatshelo. KuLevitikusi 1-7 sifunda ukuthi leyomihlatshelo yenziwa kanjani. Kwakukhona izinhlobo ezimbili zeminikelo:

Iminikelo yokumbonga uNkulunkulu nokumdumisa. ULevitikusi 1 uchaza umhlatshelo wezilwane kanti uLevitikusi 2 uchaza iminikelo yokudla, njengempuphu. Leminikelo yayidamana ukushiswa ngokupheleleyo. Lokhu kwachaza ukuthi abantu kanye nakho konke abanakho bangokukaNkulunkulu ngokupheleleyo. Imihlatshelo enjalo bayenza oKhayini noAbela (Genesise 4) kanye futhi noAbrahama nabanye abaningi. Leminikelo yenziwa nsukuzonke, kepha ikakhulu ngeSabatha nangemikhosi emikhulu.  (Numeri 28-29).

Iminikelo yokucela kuNkulunkulu intethelelo yezono. ULevitikusi 3-5 uchaza izinhlobo ezihlukene zeminikelo eyayifanele ukwenziwa ezimweni ezihlukeneyo nangezono ezihlukeneyo. Kwakukhona-ke iminikelo ehlukeneyo eqondene nabapristi, nanganabaholi, nangesizwe sonke kanye nangekholwa lodwa. Imihlatshelo ehlukeneyo eyayifanele ukwenziwa kanye ngomnyaka ngoSuku oluKhulu lokuBuyisana yayiminikeko yezono. (Levitikusi 16). Okuyinto ehlukile yalomkhosi kwakuyikuthi imbuzi eyodwa yahlatshwa neyesibili yaxoshelwa ehlane ukuzozifela khona (Levitikusi 16:20-22). “Ukubuyisana kuchaza ukuthi kukhokhelwa icala bese kulunge futhi ubudlelwano phakathi kukaNkulunkulu nathi okwalimala ngokona kwethu.

2.1 Imihlatshelo ngezono ngempela

Funda uLevitikusi 3:1-5. Imikhosi yokholo neminikelo yayifanele ukwenziwa kahle (Numeri 16). Konke okwenziwa ngokunikela kwiThestamente eliDala kuya-sisiza ukuqonda kangcono ukufa kukaJesu. Heberu 8:5 iyasho ukuthi: “bekhonza okungumfanekiso nesithunzi sokwasezulwini, okwasezulwini kuyikho okwenziwa nguJesu. Imihlatshelo yesono yayifanele ukwenziwa kwitabernakele nakamuva kwithempeli. (Levitikusi 17:1-4). Lokho kuyasho ukuthi iJerusalema laliyindawo eyodwa lapho uJesu wayefanele afele izono zethu. Ayikho enye indlela noma enye indawo esingathola kuyo intethelelo ngaphandle kukaJesu (Johane 14:6).

Yonke lemihlatshelo yayifanele ukwenziwa nga-bapristi. Kepha umpristi omkhulu wayefanele ukwenza umhlatshelo ohlukile njalo ngomnyaka ngosuku oluKhulu wokuBuyisana. Incwadi kuma-Heberu iyasho ukuthi uJesu unguMpristi omKhulu njengoMelkisedeki, owayemkhulu kunabo aba-pristi abakhulu labo. Lokho okwenziwe nguJesu ngokuzinikela wakwenza enguMpristi oMkhulu wethu. (Heberu 7:26-8:4). Wayengafani nabapristi abakhulu ngoba wayenganikeli umhlatshelo ukuzihlenga yena, ngoba phela wayengenasono. Yena wazinikela ngenxa yethu kuphela.

Zonke izilwane ezahlatshelwa zazifanele ukungabi nasici (Levitikusi 3:1). Ukuze akwazi ukukhokhela izono zethu, uJesu wayemele ukuba ngumuntu uqobo noNkulunkulu kanye-kanye. Yena wayengumnikelo opheleleyo ngoba waye yiNdodana kaNkulunkulu engenasono (1 Korinte 5:21; Heberu 9:14).

Umuntu oletha isilwane wayefanele ukubeka isandla sakhe phezu kwekhanda laso. Lokhu kuyisibonelo sokuthi ubeka izono zakhe necala lakhe ngaphezu kwesilwanel (Levitikusi 16:21). Izono zethu zibekwa kuJesu owafela izono zethu (Izaya 53:5-6; Roma 4:23-25).

Inkunzi noma imvu noma imbuzi yayifanele ukubulawa ibe ngumhlatshelo. Isono sikhokhelwa ngokufa. (Roma 6:23). Thina singenakukhokhela izono zethu ngokufa kwethu. UNkulunkulu wahlela ukuthi isilwane sasifanele ukufa esikhundleni sesoni. Lezi zilwane zikhomba kuJesu owafa esikhundleni sethu (Galatians 3:13).

NgoSuku oluKhulu lokuBuyisana imbuzi eyodwa yabulawa nenye yaxoshwa ukuzofa ehlane ngaphandle. Lokho kuyasikhumbuza ngoJesu owafa naye ngaphandle egqumeni lokufa.  (Mathewu 27:32-33; Heberu 13:10-12).

Igazi lomhlatshelo lalifanele ukubekwa ngaphezu kwelathi. ngoSuku oluKhulu lokhuBuyisana igazi lafafazwa phezu kwesivalo somphongolo (Levitikusi 16:14). Igazi lingukuphila kwesilwane esabulawa: igazi phela liphethe ukuphila (Genesise 9:4). Ngokusho ukuthi  “igazi likaJesu lihlanza zonke izono kuyasho ukuthi yena wakhokhela izono zethu ngokunikela ukuphila kwakhe (1 Johane 1:1-2:2; Efese 1:7; Heberu 9:12-15, 22).

Izitho ezimnandi zesilwane zashiswa ukumthokozisa uNkulunkulu. Umnikelo kaJesu kanti yiwona kuphela onokumgculisa uNkulunkulu (Heberu 10:5-10).

Imihlatshelo ngenxa yesono yayidinga ukuphinda-phindwa njalo ngesikhathi ona ngaso umuntu, futhi nakanye ngomnyaka ngoSuku oluKhulu lokuBuyisana. UJesu ke wafela izono zethu kanye futhi ngenxa yabo bonke abantu; umhlatshelo wakhe wawungadingeki ukuphindwa futhi (Heberu 10:11-18). Uma thina siqonda ukuthi sonile sifanele ukuvuma kuphela sicele intethelelo  (Mathewu 6:12; 1 Johane 1:8-2:1).

Kuyasho-ke ukuthi thina asisadingeki ukugcina imihlatshelo yeThestamente eliDala. Yona iyizithunzi ezedlule ngokuza kukaJesu. (Heberu 9:13-14). Akusadingeki mhlatshelo  (Heberu 9:25-26).

“Kepha yena (uKristu) esenikele ngomhlatshelo waba munye ngenxa yezono umhlatshelo onamandla phakade … ngomnikelo munye uphelelise njalonjalo labo abangcwelisiweyo. ” (Heberu 10:12, 14, 18).

2.2 Iminikelo yokubonga

Funda Jeremiya 33:11. Iminikelo yokumbonga uNkulunkulu nokumdumisa ngokunakekela kwakhe nezibusiso zakhe, yenziwa uma umuntu ethanda ukubonga ngalezo zibusiso (Genesise 8:20). Futhi ngenkathi isizwe sonke sihlangene ngomnyaka siletha iminikelo enjalo. Ngalendlela abantu bakhombisa uthando lwabo nokuzinikela kwabo kuNkulunkulu (AmaHubo 116:17). Iminikelo lena yanikelwa ukumdumisa uNkulunkulu ngamahubo nangemikhuleko (AmaHubo 141:2).

Kaningi siyafunda ukuthi leminikelo ayimukeleki kuNkulunkulu (Amos 4:4; 5:22). Uma umuntu embonga noma emdumisa uNkulunkulu engakwenzi ngokwenhliziyo noma ekwenza esaqhubeka ngokubi, njengo Khayini, umnikelo lowo awusho lutho; futhi uNkulunkulu uyawuzonda. Ngakho uyasho uNkulunkulu ukuthi inhliziyo ehlanzekileyo nomoya oqotho kungcono kunomhlatshelo ongawuletha (AmaHubo 40:6-8; 51:16-17; izAga 21:3; Hosiya 6:6).

UPawulu uyasho ukuthi ukudumisa uNkulunkulu kwempela “ukukunikela umzimba ube ngophilileyo nongcwele nothandeka kuNkulunkulu” (Roma 12:1). Heberu 13:15-16 ithi: “Masinikele njalonjalo kuNkulunkulu ngaye umhlatshelo wokubonga, okungukuthi isithelo sezindebe ezivuma igama lakhe. Kepha maningakhohlwa ukwenza okuhle nokuphana, ngokuba iminikelo enjalo uNkulunkulu uthokoziswa yiyo. (futhi Mika 6:6-8; Jakobe 1:27).

Okunye okuthiwa ngumnikelo kuyimali esinikela ngayo  ukuqhuba umsebenzi kaNkulunkulu nokusiza abantu abaswelayo (AbaseFiliphi 4:18). UPawulu uchaza indlela esifanele ukunikela ngayo kwabaseKorinte yesibili 8:1-15.

2.3 Imihlatshelo yezilwane namuhla

Funda 1 Amakhosi 18:20-39. Izizwe eziningi zesikhathi zeThestamente eliDala kanye neliSha zazihlaba. Zahlabela onkulunkulu bamanga ukubangcenga ukuzenzela izimanga. Uma uIsrayeli engena eKhanani ukuhlala phakathi kwezizwe, uNkulunkulu wabalayeza ukuhlephula amalati lapho kwahlatshelwa ngokungeyikho (Duteronomi 7:1-6). Umthetho wokuqala nowesibili wemiThetho eyiShumi iyasho ukuthi kukhona uNkulunkulu oyedwa zwi weqiniso nokuthi Yena angekhonzwa njengonkulunkulu bamanga. Futhi asinakukhonza sibuye sinikele kokunye ngaphandle kwakhe.

Kuyikho okunye kwalokho batshelwa khona abezizwe abaphendukela kuKristu ngemva kosuku lwePhentekhoste kwakungukuthi mabayeke “amanyala ezithombe”  (IzEnzo 15:20). Emzini weKorinte, oseduze neRoma, kwahlatshelwa onkulunkulu abaningi (IzEnzo 17:16, 23). UPawulu wacwayisa amakholwa amasha maqondana naleyo mihlatshelo. Phela uma umuntu ehlabela labo bonkulunkulu bamanga, uzihlanganisa nabo, okufana nokukhonza amademoni  (1 Korinte 10:14-22).

Nokho kwakukhona amakholwa eKorinte ashoyo ukuthi phela aseyekele ngokupheleleyo ukukholwa kulabonkulunkulu. Basho-ke ukuthi bakhululekile ngakho bangadla inyama eyahlatshelwa labonkulunkulu. UPawulu wabavumela, kepha wabacwayisa wathi ngokwenza njalo bangakhubekisa amakholwa asebuthaka asakholwayo ukuthi labonkulunkulu bakhona, baze balahlekelwa ukukholwa ngokubona ukuthi amakholwa anamandla enza njalo, abuyele ukukhonza labonkulunkulu (1 Korinte 10:23-33). Esahlukeni 8 uphatha futhi loludaba ngokuthi: “Qaphelani kodwa, funa leli lungelo lenu libe yisikhubekiso kwababuthakathaka.  Ngalokhu uma ukudla kumkhubekisa umzalwane wami, angisoze ngadla nyama kuze kube phakade, ukuze ngingamkhubekisi umzalwane wami” (1 Korinte 8:9, 13).

Ngokwamasiko aseAfrika izilwane zihlatshwa ngemikhosi ethile. Okuhlukanisa lokhu nokuhlaba nje ukutola inyama yokudla kuyikuthi kubizwa amagama amadlozi uma inkomo noma imbuzi ihlatshwa. Isilwane sibulawa ukusho okuthile kumadlozi noma ukubacela okuthile. Amakholwa athile akhula ngokuhlabela ngalamasiko athi kulungile ukwenza njalo yize bangaba kaKristu: bathi kuyinjwayelo yakubo. Amanye amakholwa athi lokhu kumelene nokukholwa kobuKristu.

Abantu bathi amadlozi awasizo izithombe nangempela awasiwo amademoni (1 Korinte 10: 21). Kunjalo. Ibhayibheli alikhulumi ngamadlozi nqo nangamasiko awethu. Kepha kuhlatshelwa ngenxa yani ngokwamasiko? Abenza njalo balindele okuthile emadlozini. Bayesaba ukuthi uma bengabahlabeli kukhona okubi okuzobehlela khona. Kuyasho ukuthi bakholela emadlozini, bayethembela kuwo.

Umthetho wokuqala uyasho ukuthi asifanele ukuba nabanye onkulunkulu ngaphandle kukaNkulunkulu; asifanele ukubeka ithemba lethu kokunye eceleni kukaNkulunkulu. Umthetho wesibili uthi asifanele ukwenza okuveza ukuthi sikholwa kwezinye izinto. Amadlozi phela awasiwo onkulunkulu nawonkulunkulu bamanga. Nokho siwenza wona ukuba abengonkulunkulu bamanga uma senza okuthile okuveza ukuthi sethembela kuwo. Bakhona abathi bakhonza uNkulunkulu ngokuba imihlatshelo abayenzayo bamenzela uNkulunkulu. Bathi amadlozi akhona eduze kunathi kuNkulunkulu nokuthi angasikhulumela kuNkulunkulu. Lokho akusilo iqiniso. Phela uJesu ungummeli wethu oyedwa onoku sikhulumelayo, Yena yedwa unguMmeli wethu kuphela (1 Thimothewu 2:5).

Akhona amasonto lapho kuhlatshelwa izimbuzi noma izinkukhu khona enkonzweni (NgesiXhosa kuthiwa isihlabelelo). Kunzima ukusho ukuthi kukuhle noma kukubi. Kuhambisana nemfundiso yesonto ngalokhu kanye nenkolelo yalelo nalelo-kholwa. Komunye kungaba isibonelo nje esingenamandla. Kepha omunye kungathiwa ukuthi kuyindlela yobuKristu ukuwakhonza amadlozi. Lokhu kuhlabela esontweni kungaba ingozi. Kungabacabangisa abantu ukuthi bakhonza uNkulunkulu ophilayo. Kungabahlehlisa abantu babuye ezinkolweni ezindala. IBhayibheli liyakhanyisa ukuthi akusadingeki ukuhlaba izilwane noma ukuchitha igazi. UJesu ungumhlatshelo owodwa nowokugcina. (Heberu 10:14,18).

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